An International Publications House

Albert Science International Organization

Connecting People With Pioneering Thought

Albert Science International Organization (ASIO) is international , peer-reviewed , open access , cum print version & online journals.
JOURNALS || ASIO Journal of Drug Delivery (ASIO-JDD) [ISSN: 2455-2828]

Author Names : Pranjal
Page No. : 31-36  volume 1 issue 1
Article Overview


Pranjal, A. K. Gupta, A. Mittal, A Review on Cannabinoids –An Effective and Safe Treatment in Management of Pain, ASIO Journal of Drug Delivery (ASIO-JDD), 2015, 1(1): 31-36.


dids/doi No.: 12.2015-38368922

Dids Link :


The background to this debate about legitimising cannabis (also called marijuana), collected from the plant Cannabis sativa is used as analgesic for both therapeutically and recreationally from thousands of years. Chronic pain is common and debilitating with too few effective therapeutic options. Cannabinoids represent a relatively new pharmacological option as part of a multimodel treatment plan. Cannabis is used recreationally because of the euphoria that it produces. The adverse psychological effects (including psychomotor and cognitive impairment; anxiety and panic attacks; and acute psychosis and paranoia) may limit therapeutic use. Cannabinoid refers to a group of chemicals naturally found in the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa L. and includes compounds that are either structurally or pharmacologically similar to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or those that bind to the cannabinoid receptors. Adverse effects associated with the cannabinoids were common and sometimes severe in six of the eight trials that showed efficacy. The predominant adverse effect seemed to be depression of the central nervous system. Cardiovascular effects were generally mild and well tolerated. In conclusion this systematic review of recent good quality randomized trials demonstrates that cannabinoids are a modestly effective and safe treatment option for chronic non-cancer (predominantly neuropathic) pain.

Keywords:Cannabinoids, Cannabis sativa, non-cancer pain, psychological effects

  1. Martin WJ, Loo CM, Basbaum Al. Cannabinoids are anti-allodynic in rats with persistent inflammation. Pain, 1999, 82(2):199-205.

  2. Ashton CH. Adverse effects of cannabis and cannabinoids.Br J Anaesth, 1999, 83:637–649.

  3. Anand P, Whiteside G, Fowler CJ, Hohmann AG. Targeting CB2 receptors and the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of pain. Brain Res Rev., 2008, 60: 255–66.

  4. Campbell FA, Tramer MR, Carroll D, Reynolds JM, Moore RA. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain, A qualitative systematic review, BMJ, 2002, 323: 1– 6.

  5. Martin-Sanchez E, Furukawa TA, Taylor J, Martin JLR. Systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain, Pain Med., 2009, 10: 1353–68.

  6. Foulkes WD, Smith IE, Reis-Filho JS. Triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med., 2010, 363:1938– 48.

  7. Higgins MJ, Baselga J. Targeted therapies for breast cancer. J Clin Invest, 2011, 121:3797–803.

  8. Access to therapeutic marijuana/cannabis. (1996). American Journal of Public Health, 86, 441442.

  9. Clark MR, Treisman GJ. (Eds): Chronic Pain and Addiction. Adv Psychosom Med. Basel, Karger, 2011, vol 30, pp 125–138.

  10. Holdcroft A, Smith M, Jacklin A, Hodgson H, Smith B, Newton M. Pain   relief   with   oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever, Anaesthesia, 1997, 52:483–48

  11. Guindon J, Hohmann AG. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors: a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Br J Pharmacol., 2008, 153: 319–34.

  12. Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA, Nature, 1990, 346:561–4.

  13. Dixon WE. The pharmacology of Cannabis indica. British Medical Journal, 1999, 2 (9) 1354-135.

  14. Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, Gavaghan DJ. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?Control Clin Trials, 1996, 17(1):1–12.

  15. Mc Quay HJ, Moore RA. An evidence-based resource for pain relief. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

  16. Stinson JN, McGrath PJ. Measurement and assessment of pain in pediatric patients. In: clinical Pain Management: a Practical Guide, eds Lynch ME, Craig KD, Peng PWH. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011, 64–71.

  17. Lynch ME. The need for a Canadian pain strategy. Pain Res Manage, 2011, 16: 77–80.

  18. Deandrea S, Montanari M, Moja L, Apolone G. Prevalence of under treatment of cancer pain. Ann Oncol., 2008, 19: 1985–91

  19. Clark WC, Janal MN, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG. Effects of moderate and high doses of marihuana on thermal pain: a sensory decision theory analysis.J Clin Pharmacol.,1981, 21 (suppl 8–9):S299–S310.

  20. Tang N, Crane C. Suicidality in chronic pain: review of the prevalence, risk factors and psychological link,. Psychol Med., 2006, 36:575–86.